The site also has an article that explains how Museum of London Archaeology MoLA Datasets — including clay pipes and glass — have been incorporated into the site. Some interesting feedback from the question session afterwards was that other archaeological units, museums or researchers might be interested in publishing records to the same site. The first step towards this is to define the internal and external stakeholders; the second is to determine their requirements. Internal stakeholder requirements include modified forms and structure for recording enhanced data and analysis, while external requirements relate to the publication of the data to defined groups of website users. It is important to define the targeted users of your website so that its content, site architecture and functionality can be tailored to them. The targeted users of the site were largely determined by the subject matter. The main users will be specialists, followed by general adults. Site functionality, considered as search or browse capabilities, was determined as a balance between the purpose of the site, the needs of its visitors and the content and infrastructure we have available. The database and website also had to be expandable to provide for greater temporal or geographic coverage, including collections throughout the Greater London area. Finally, in order to design data structures that would best meet the needs of the project, I had to consider nature of the material to be recorded.
Abstract There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods; Binford’s linear formula, Hanson’s formulas and the Heighton and Deagan formula. Pipe stem bore diameter data were collected from 26 sites in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina in order to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods.
Of the formulas, the Heighton and Deagan proved to be the most accurate, producing formula mean dates closest to the dates assigned to the sites using other dating techniques. It was also determined that all three formula dating methods work better in Maryland and Virginia than in North and South Carolina.
Evolution of clay tobacco pipes in England Clay tobacco pipes were made in England shortly after the introduction of tobacco from North America, in about The earliest written description of smoking was in and probably described a pipe derived from native North American types.
European imported pipe stems of various sizes, ca. Occurring in large numbers across historic settlements in Virginia, their use and discard can be compared to that of the modern cigarette butt. Kaolin pipes were made in England and Holland and shipped throughout the western world in the s and s to meet the demand of a thriving international tobacco market. Using simple measurements and basic math, European clay pipes have served as the primary means of dating historic archaeological sites from the 17th and 18th centuries.
By the 19th and 20th centuries, the distinctive white kaolin pipe had largely been replaced with various metal, wooden, and ceramic pipes that were made and used throughout the world. Through the 17th and 18th centuries, tobacco prices fell, and the shape of pipes changed in response. The stem became longer, the bowl larger, and the diameter of the bore grew progressively smaller.
By tallying the pipe bore diameter frequencies on a site, archaeologists can calculate a series of date ranges to determine the approximate age of a site and the length of time it was occupied. Given a range of pipe options why did some individuals choose to pay more for pipes imported from England? Some archaeologists have interpreted this behavior as a visible way for colonists to signal their social status and wealth, distinguishing themselves from those who could only afford locally made pipes.
Test-tube with pipe contents, ca.
Antique and Vintage Pipes
Archaeologists analyze multiple clues to date and identify the pipe maker including a careful combination of archaeological site context, bowl style and form, pipe stem bore diameter, style and placement of the mark itself, and place of manufacture. We ask that if you have a nearly complete bowl from which a type can be determined, to use the Oswald typology, but there is also a field to record reference to another typology, should you prefer. Marks also appear on pipe stems. Marks were produced by molds that left incuse negative or relief raised impressions Oswald In the first half of the 17th century, for both English and Dutch pipes, marks generally appear on the flat base of the heel.
Hole sizes in Pipe Stems – A way of dating? English Pipes: , , In the archaeological studies carried out on clay pipes (and believe me there are many!) mathematical formula’s have been applied to explore the possibilities of dating them by the size of the hole in the stem.
In 7 short articles you can learn how to smoke a pipe! I encourage you to take the time to read through the Not-So Boring Guide to Pipe Smoking which is written especially for pipe smoking beginners. The guide is 6 pages and will help you choose your first pipe as well as choosing your first pipe tobacco. All the information you need to start smoking pipes is just a click away. Introduction to Pipe Smoking for Beginners Smoking pipes is really all about relaxation.
Since tobacco was discovered its been a favorite pastime of men and now some women find themselves smoking a tobacco pipe. There are really only 3 ways to smoke tobacco: The tobacco pipe is the only option which gives the smoker a lasting sense of pleasure and a total state of relaxation. A pipe is similar to a fountain pen or a fine time piece.
Pipe Smoking – Learn How To Smoke a Pipe
Between the initials is the symbol of a dagger above a heart. Both pipe bowl and mark attributed to Bristol pipemaker Richard Berryman Walker Pipemark Crowned rose Relief Crowned rose Relief. On either side of the rose are the numbers 1 and 6.
Pipe stem dating. The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites.
Very Full Pleasant to Tolerable Grouse-Moor is a very often maligned tobacco and this is simply not fair. It is a carefully produced blend of the finest ingredients and a consistent blending tradition going back over two hundred years. I would proffer that the reason so many would thumb their noses at it is because it is the sort of blend that we serious pipemen are told to shy away from because it is not laden with manly amounts of Latakia or smoky stoved Virginia.
For my part, Grouse-Moor is one of my favorite tobaccos, representing, as it does, the pinnacle of one of the most venerable traditions in the realm of tobacco, that of the English Lakeland. Only the finest steamed and stoved bright Virginia is employed, cut into deliciously long ribbons that pack easily and are perfect for slow, relaxed puffing. It is the top casing that truly defines Grouse-Moor, and the sauce used is the very best blend of essences of any that are employed for Lakeland-style aromatics, managing to be floral and herbal and fruity in delicate balance all at the same time.
The essence used by Samuel Gawith is a secret blend of all natural components known only to one employee of that historic blending house. I can recall the time that I visited the factory in Kendal and the reverence with which the bottle of Grouse-Moor essence was brought out to be sprinkled onto a batch of leaf to fulfill my request for a pound of Grouse-Moor direct from the factory floor. Oddly, to me, at least, it is the extra flavoring that people seem to dislike in this blend.
The Art and Archaeology of Clay Pipes
Colonial pipes are typically made of ball clay, a kaolinitic sedimentary clay containing varying amounts of mica and quartz Old Hickory Clay Co. Before European production of tobacco, Mesoamericans and subsequent North American Indians smoked tobacco for cultural and sacred purposes Peach State Archaeological Society Tobacco was introduced in England in the s and was commonplace by the early s.
THE DATING AND TYPOLOGY OF CLAY PIPES BEARING THE ROYA L ARMS by D. R. Atkinson and Adrian Oswald SUMMARY Clay Pipes beari~ Royal Arms occur on sites of the 18th and 19th century and are readily attempt is here made.
Merseyside Archaeological Society Year of Publication: The monograph presents the results of archaeological and historical research in the village of Rainford, near St Helens, Merseyside. The manufacture of pottery and clay tobacco pipes became an important cottage industry for the local community. This book explores the fresh evidence from the excavations, including detailed reports of work at at 87 Church Road which produced evidence of a 17th-century pottery workshop, sealing a ditch in which a sizable collection of late 16th-century pottery had been dumped.
The Rainford Library excavations on the site of a pipe shop, and watching brief on no 91 Church Road, have shed light on pottery and pipe production from the 17th to 19th centuries. There are also the results of meticulous historical research into the pottery industry of Rainford and its surrounding area by Ron Dagnall, including an important documentary record of potters, compiled over many years’ research.
Other transcriptions of Rainford wills and inventories have been contributed by the St Helens Association for Historical Research. Ron has also contributed a series of transcriptions of inventories and wills of Rainford potters from the early 17th century onwards, of great value to historians and genealogical researchers alike.
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The Clay Tobacco Pipe Case: There is the occasional, vintage article that gives ever-so-slight attention to it: The most informative, in my view, is W. In his introductory paragraph, Fiske wrote: Simmonds, A Dictionary of Trade Products
Statistical Methods for Dating Clay Pipe Fragments By lAIN C. WALKER Staff Archaeologist, Canadian Historic Sites Service, Ottawaj at present research student, 18th Century Clay Tobacco Pipes” by John F. Chalkley’, ibid., 2 pages. STATISTICAL METHODS FOR DATING CLAY PIPE .
Adrian Hugh Oswald M. Publications on the Archaeology Printable Version Adrian Oswald’s interest in the archaeology of the clay tobacco pipe began in his professional capacity as Keeper of Archaeology at the Guildhall Museum after World War II, in a bomb-ravaged City of London ripe for redevelopment. Adrian was quick to recognize the potential of a valuable new dating tool for post-medieval excavation.
This record of his writings on the subject over nearly a half century vividly illustrates his unrivalled international authority. Although papers unrecorded here, whether or not in collaboration with others, may surface at a later date, this bibliography is intended to list all Adrian’s known publications that include reference to clay tobacco pipes. These range from the work for which he was most renowned, Clay Pipes for the Archaeologist, through his many reports on pipe bowls recovered in excavations the world over, to his frequent, sometimes brief, but always illuminating contributions to the Society for Clay Pipe Research newsletters.
For each entry page numbers, where known, refer to the actual report on pipes so as to show its length. I should appreciate notification of any omissions or errors. In researching titles, a great deal of time was saved by using as a base the entries in Susanne Atkin’s Bibliography of Clay Tobacco Pipe Studies, published through the Society for Clay Pipe Research, and those in the indexes of the Society’s newsletters.
Military kit through the ages: from the Battle of Hastings to Helmand
She was a nut case. Only half are black and half nut cases. And when he came to the nut trees, and saw the shells left by the idle fairies and all the traces of their frolic, he knew exactly how they had acted, and that they had disobeyed him by playing and loitering on their way through the woods. Monoecious, and bearing their male flowers in catkins, they are readily distinguished from the rest of the catkin-bearing trees by their peculiar fruit, an acorn or nut, enclosed at the base in a woody cup, formed by the consolidation of numerous involucral bracts developed beneath the fertile flower, simultaneously with a cup-like expansion of the thalamus, to which the bracteal scales are more or less adherent.
The green and angular fruit or “nut” ripens in October; it is about 4 in. She’s always doing something melodramatic—a real nut case.
Clay pipes have a long history dating back to the Native Americans of pre-colonial North America. Simple clay tobacco pipes were introduced to the British when Sir Walter Raleigh began returning from his voyages to what we now call Virginia with tobacco from The New World.
August 31, Tasting five recent indie 11yo Laphroaig at high strength, four of them being from and one from , three being ex-bourbon and two ex-sherry and what else? Also hints of wet newspapers. All perfect according to this poor taster. Sweet, salty, citrusy, earthy, almondy peat. What a nice series of casks! Also a lot of sea air. Huge notes of sea water and metal old car engine. Something slightly roasted and tarry, earthy as well… And there are various citrus fruits, tangerines, bitter oranges… Finish: A little more tropical fruits and we would be there.
But warning, proper water is obligatory. Some ham and a little humus. Motor oil not that far from the but not as bold.
A Pipe Smoking Primer (Pipe Smoking 101)
When I first opened a tin of this, and took a huge sniff at the midnight-dark contents, my head reeled, and I experienced something approaching fear! The huge Latakia smokiness was there, richer than I had ever smelt it before, but stronger than this was a mysterious fermented, almost yeast-like smell. I can only compare it to smelling one of those powerful cheeses that one can find in Brno, in the Czech republic.
My CD ROM “The Art & Archaeology of Clay Tobacco Pipes” available only through this website contains lots of useful information as well as thousands of photographs .
This section of the Kansas Artifacts web page describes the various kinds of stone used for making artifacts. General geological terms used here are defined in the glossary. On naming stone sources: In Kansas, the preference of professional archaeologists is to name a lithic type kind of stone for the geologic source from which it derives. This can be either very general or quite specific. If a precise source is not known, one can use the geologic era in which the bedrock formed.
Thus all of the cherts from the Flint Hills are Permian in age, while those that outcrop further east are Pennsylvanian. When a type of stone can be attributed more specifically, the names of geologic formations or members within a formation are used. Thus the highly distinctive Smoky Hill jasper derives from the Smoky Hill member of the Niobrara formation of Cretaceous age. Map of Stone sources in Kansas ss01 Argentine chert This dark-colored, highly fossiliferous chert outcrops in eastern Kansas.
W. White Co Clay Pipe from Glasgow found…
Artifacts as time markers Pipe stem dating The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites. In the s J. Harrington studied the thousands of pipe stems excavated at Jamestown and other colonial Virginia sites, noticing a definite relationship between the diameter of the pipe stem bore—or hole—and the age of the pipe of which it had been part.
This change in diameter may have occurred because pipe stems became longer through time, requiring a smaller bore. Louis Binford later devised a mathematical formula to refine Harrington’s method Deetz
17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods; Binford’s linear formula, Hanson’s formulas and .
History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved.
You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind. Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications.
The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery.